WEB MINING is a NEW AREA OF DATA MINING .
a POLYNOMIAL-TIME ALGORITHM is an ALGORITHM whose execution time is either givenby a polynomial on the size of the input , or can be bounded by such a polynomial .
FIRST-ORDER LOGIC is a formal LOGICAL SYSTEM used in mathematics , philosophy , linguistics , and computer science .
LOGIC PROGRAMMING is INDUCTIVE PROGRAMMING .
WEB MINING refers to an APPLICATION OF DATA mining techniques to discover pattern from websites .
DATA SET is a DATA SET is simply a group of numbers .
PAGERANK is a LINK ANALYSIS ALGORITHM , named after larry page , .
LOCAL SEARCH is the use of SPECIALIZED INTERNET SEARCH ENGINES that allow users to submit geographically constrained searches against a structured database of local business listings .
CROSS VALIDATION is a MODEL EVALUATION METHOD which measures how well a model makes predictions for data that it has not already sees .
in statistics , a MIXTURE MODEL is a PROBABILISTIC MODEL for representing the presence of sub-populations within an overall population , without requiring that an observed data-set should identify the sub-population to which an individual observation belongs .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is the study of ALGORITHMS , including : � their formal and mathematical properties � their hardware realizations � their linguistic realizations � their applications .
FEATURE EXTRACTION is the combined PROCESS of segmenting an image into regions of pixels , computing .
DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS is a TECHNIQUE that uses input from individuals who belong to a group to set up a predictive model .
SEARCH ENGINE is an EXTERNAL SEARCH ENGINE .
a CLASSIFICATION PROBLEM is a SPECIAL TYPE OF FUNCTION APPROXIMATION .
FIRST-ORDER LOGIC is a FORMAL LOGICAL SYSTEM used in mathematics , philosophy , linguistics , and computer science .
a COMBINATORIAL AUCTION is an AUCTION in which bidders can place bids on combinations of items , or &ldquo .
QUICK SORT is one of the COOLEST ALGORITHMS available in sorting and its performance is measured most of the time in o(nlogn ) , although the worst case sorting times of bubble sort and this are equal .
BINARY CLASSIFICATION is an APPROACH that uses facial and non-facial training data sets to detect a facial region from an input image .
WEB MINING is the application of DATA mining techniques to discover patterns from the web through content mining , structure mining , and usage mining .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is one of several academic EVENTS sanctioned by the university interscholastic league .
MACHINE TRANSLATION is defined as a FUNCTION between two given languages .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is an ART OF COMPUTATIONAL THEORY , which is basically a science dedicated to develop , analyze , or evaluate new methods or algorithms to solve practical problem using automatic computers .
a CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY refers to the PROBABILITY of observing an event a given that you have observed a separate event b. the computer system refers to the component mapping to identify components that are to be configured to implement the received application instructions .
MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD is a METHODOLOGY used to estimate the parameters of an econometric or statistical model .
EQUIVALENCE CLASS is defined as a set of IDENTICAL NODES in the xis tree for an input xml document .
CROSS VALIDATION is the standard METHOD TOESTIMATE the performance of predictions over unseen data .
a MIXTURE MODEL is a collection of DISTRIBUTIONS D. in statistics , a MIXTURE MODEL is a probabilistic model for representing the presence of sub-populations within an overall population , without requiring that an observed data-set should identify the sub-population to which an individual observation belongs .
a CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELD is a MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR SEQUENCES that is similar in many ways to a hidden markov model , but is discriminative rather than generative in nature .
in computing , a TRANSITION FUNCTION is the FUNCTION that defines the state transitions of a turing machine or a finite-state machine .
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING refers to MACHINE PROCESSING of a natural language input .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is a type of MACHINE LEARNING , and thereby also a branch of artificial intelligence .
a LOSS FUNCTION is a MEASURE OF FIT between a mathematical model of data and the actual data .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is a MIX OF THEORY , application , design and experiment .
DIRECTED GRAPH is a DIRECTED GRAPH or DIGRAPH is a pair of : * a set v , whose elements are called vertices or nodes , * a set a of ordered pairs of vertices , called arcs , directed edges , or arrows .
MACHINE LEARNING is a scientific DISCIPLINE that is concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to change behavior based on data , such as from sensor data or databases .
CRYPTOGRAPHY is the TECHNIQUE of using mathematics , computer science and engineering to encrypt and decrypt information .
DIRECTED ACYCLIC GRAPH is a DIRECTED GRAPH containing no cycles .
a GAUSSIAN PROCESS is a POPULAR NONPARAMETRIC MODEL FOR REGRESSION and classification that specifies a prior over functions .
COST FUNCTION is a FUNCTION which represents the costs of producing a number of items .
HASH TABLE is BASE TABLE for searching files inside mpqs .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is a new TECHNOLOGY waiting to be exploited .
a BAYESIAN NETWORK is a compact and INTUITIVE GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION of the joint probability distribution .
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING is the oldest area of ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , since the ability to comprehend texts and to automatically produce dialogs is a manifestation of complex intelligence .
PAGERANK is a HORRIBLE MEASURE OF ONLINE INFLUENCE from conversation marketing steve , steve , steve .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is the main FEATURE of any constraint solver .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE refers to NONBIOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE , while nanotechnology is a term coined by dr. artificial intelligence refers to forms of nonbiological intelligence that will soon rival the capacity of the human brain and then rapidly exceed human intelligence by a billion-fold or more within the next few decades .
DEPTH FIRST SEARCH is a SEARCH STRATEGY that backtracks through all of the rules in a knowledge base that could lead to determining the value of the attribute that is the current goal or subgoal .
IMAGE ANNOTATION is the process of adding ADDITIONAL INFORMATION the image for such uses as enhanced image enjoyment , reminders of the people or places in the image , industry applications , education , classification , and other imaging utilization areas that can benefit from incorporating additional information .
CROSS VALIDATION is a MODEL EVALUATION METHOD that is better than residuals .
DEPTH-FIRST SEARCH is a special case of BEST-FIRST SEARCH .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is a SELF-LEARNING ALGORITHM which does not need an explicit model of the environment .
DIRECTED GRAPH is a GRAPH in which the edges are ordered pairs , so that , if the edge is in the graph , the edge need not be in the graph and is distinct from if it is .
Prolog is a COMPUTER LANGUAGE designed in europe to support natural language processing .
FEATURE EXTRACTION is the COMBINED PROCESS of segmenting an image into regions of pixels , computing .
INFORMATION PROCESSING is the change of INFORMATION in any manner detectable by an observer .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is NOT PROGRAMMING .
MODAL LOGIC is the study of UBIQUITOUS REASONING PATTERNS with knowledge , time , and other intensional notions , which occur intertwined with processes of information update and interaction .
HEAP SORT is an OPTIMAL WAY of sorting information .
in machine learning , PATTERN RECOGNITION is the ASSIGNMENT of some sort of output value ( ) to a given input value ( ) , according to some specific algorithm .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is the study of ALGORITHMS ( ) , not computers .
IMAGE RETRIEVAL refers to a TECHNOLOGY OF THE INQUIRY into a digital image database , so that the retrieved images can meet the user 's intention .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is a category of MACHINE learning algorithms including q learning , temporal difference , and sarsa algorithm [ 7–9 ] .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is a SIMULATION-BASED TECHNIQUE for solving markov decision problems .
EIGENVALUE is a FUNCTION , right .
in graph theory , GRAPH COLORING is a special case of GRAPH labeling .
IMAGE ANNOTATION is the process of adding ADDITIONAL INFORMATION to the image for such uses as enhanced image enjoyment , reminders of the people or places in the image , industry applications , education , classification , and other imaging utilization areas that can benefit from incorporating additional information .
in mathematics , MATRIX MULTIPLICATION is a BINARY OPERATION that takes a pair of matrices , and produces another matrix .
in practice , the HASH FUNCTION is the COMPOSITION of two functions , one provided by the client and one by the implementer .
SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE is a kind of NEURAL NETWORK that optimally classifies measured data based on kernel method which is very popular in neural network technologies .
a RECOMMENDER SYSTEM is a SOFTWARE TOOL that supports users in identifying interesting items , especially among large numbers of items .
FEATURE SPACE is an ACOUSTIC FEATURE SPACE .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is a CURRENT WEB REALITY , GALWAY CONFERENCE told - the irish times - fri , sep 10 , 2010. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is a kind of technology and it has been the subject of much contemporary philosophical debate that is ripe for the picking .
an ADJACENCY MATRIX is a REPRESENTATION OF A GRAPH in which the vertices correspond to both columns and rows , and the entries are the number of edges connecting adjacent vertices .
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING is a widely-used OPERATIONAL ALGORITHM for solving classes of optimisation problems that can be divided into stages or sub-problems .
MODAL LOGIC is a type of FORMAL LOGIC that extends the standards of formal logic to include the elements of modality .
MODEL CHECKING is a TECHNIQUE that allows the searching of large finite state spaces in a very efficient manner with respect to certain properties .
TREE SEARCH is a DEPTH-FIRST TREE SEARCH .
DATA SET is a DATA set , or dataset , is a computer file having a record organization .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is a young DISCIPLINE that is evolving rapidly from its beginnings in the 1940 's .
REGRESSION MODEL is a COMPUTER SITE-SELECTION MODEL that develops a series of mathematical equations showing the association between potential store sales and various independent variables at each location under consideration .
FIRST-ORDER LOGIC refers to FIRST-ORDER PREDICATE CALCULUS wherein facts may be expressed as a combination of a functor and an argument .
PATTERN MATCHING is a VERY CPU INTENSIVE PROCESS .
NP-COMPLETENESS is a THEORY , not a fact , about the complexity of computational problems .
PAGERANK is essentially the MEASURE of a web page' .
DEPTH FIRST SEARCH is a SEARCH in which children of a node are considered before siblings are considered .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is the study of COMPUTERS .
FEATURE SELECTION is the PROCESS of finding the set of inputs to a machine learning algorithm that will yield the best performance .
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING is an OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE .
in software engineering , DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE is KNOWLEDGE about the environment in which the target system operates , for example , software agents .
a DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION is a MATHEMATICAL EQUATION for an unknown function of one or several variables that relates the values of the function itself and its derivatives of various orders .
STANDARD DEVIATION is a MEASURE OF DEVIATION from mean value .
DATA MATRIX is the most popular 2D CODE for marking small items .
a RANDOM FIELD is a GENERALIZATION OF A STOCHASTIC PROCESS such that the underlying parameter need no longer be a simple real , but can instead be a multidimensional vector space or even a manifold .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING refers to a BROAD CLASS of learning problems and algorithms that share the goal of optimizing the behavior of an agent that can be modified with experience .
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY THEORY is a branch of the THEORY of COMPUTATION in computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty .
an EM ALGORITHM is a TWO-STEP PROCESS .
DIRECTED GRAPH is a GRAPH with one-way edges .
a LINEAR EQUATION is the ALGEBRAIC REPRESENTATION of an individual line .
TIME COMPLEXITY refers to the number of OPERATIONS performed for a given input .
a RANDOM VARIABLE is a FUNCTION that associates a unique numerical value with every outcome of an experiment .
IMAGE ANNOTATION is the process of adding additional INFORMATION to the image for such uses as enhanced image enjoyment , reminders of the people or places in the image , industry applications , education , classification , and other imaging utilization areas that can benefit from incorporating additional information .
IMAGE RETRIEVAL is an ITERATIVE PROCESS .
GAME THEORY is an APPROPRIATE APPROACH to model and simulate those complex interrelations in water resources management .
a GAUSSIAN KERNEL is a KERNEL with the shape of a gaussian curve .
a RECOMMENDER SYSTEM is a piece of SOFTWARE that helps users to identify the most interesting and relevant learning items from a large number of items .
DEPTH-FIRST SEARCH is an ALGORITHM for traversing or searching a tree , tree structure , or graph .
a USER INTERFACE is a kind of INTERFACE that enables a user to conveniently use electronic appliances by displaying menus required to manipulate functions of the electronic appliance , an operation state of the electronic appliance , setting environments , and so forth , by text and or graphics on a display screen .
DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS is a STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE to classify objects into mutually exclusive and exhaustive groups based on a set of measurable object 's features .
in computational complexity theory and computability theory , a SEARCH PROBLEM is a type of COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM represented by a binary relation .
HEURISTIC SEARCH is a broad domain encompassing SINGLE-AGENT , two-player , and multi-player search .
a BINARY CONSTRAINT is a CONSTRAINT between two variables .
PATTERN RECOGNITION is the PROCESS of training a neural network .
POLYNOMIAL SPACE is the set of BOOEAN QUERIES EXPRESSIBLE by first-order quantifier blocks iterated as much as is useful , i. the principal component is defined as either the bottom-left corner or the bottom-right corner , depending on which corner produced higher confidence in the previous frame .
MACHINE TRANSLATION is the automatic translation of HUMAN LANGUAGES , such as english and chinese .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is a CURRENT WEB REALITY , GALWAY CONFERENCE told - the irish times - fri , sep 10 , 2010. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it .
BOOLEAN LOGIC is an ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE applied to seaches on the internet or to find file operations on your computer .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is the science of COMPUTERS whilst information technology may or may not be use computers or any form of COMPUTER SCIENCE to do its evil deeds .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is an AI TECHNIQUE which we use to control the optimism in time warp via a bounded window .
a DERIVATION TREE is a way of PRESENTINGA DERIVATION in an order-independent fashion .
MODAL LOGIC is the study of the PROPERTIES of so-called modal operators - i. modal logic is a type of formal logic that extends the standards of formal logic to include the elements of modality .
in support vector machines , the KERNEL FUNCTION is a GENERALIZATION OF THE DISTANCE METRIC ; it measures the distance between two expression vectors as the data are projected into higher-dimensional space .
a HASH TABLE is an ARRAY OF POINTERS to data structures and its index is derived from information in those data structures .
APPROXIMATION ALGORITHM is a METHOD of finding a nearly optimal solution to a problem that cannot be solved exactly within a reasonable time .
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is the PROBABILITY of some event a , given the occurrence of some other event b .
a SUPPORT VECTOR refers to a CHARACTERISTIC VECTOR SI on the optimal identification hyperplane .
PAGERANK is a NUMERIC VALUE that represents how important a page is on the web .
CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELD is a kind of LOGISTIC REGRESSION .
MACHINE TRANSLATION refers to the utilization of SOFTWARE to translate text from one language to another .
a CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELD is a type of DISCRIMINATIVE UNDIRECTED PROBABILISTIC GRAPHICAL MODEL .
DIJKSTRA'S ALGORITHM is DIJKSTRA 's ALGORITHM , conceived by dutch computer scientist edsger dijkstra in 1959 , is a graph search algorithm that solves the single-source shortest path problem for a graph with nonnegative edge path costs , producing a shortest path tree .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is a TECHNIQUE that allows programmers to specify the relationships among the variables in a program declaratively , and update selected variables automatically in response to changes in other variables .
WORD SENSE DISAMBIGUATION is the PROCESS of determing which of a word 's possible meanings is intended by a particular instance of the word .
OBJECTIVE FUNCTION is a FUNCTION to be maximized or minimized in optimization theory .
DATA SET is the DATA set contains , or can contain , multiple types of content , where each type is associated with one or more clipboard formats .
OBJECT RECOGNITION is the ABILITY to perceive an object’s physical properties and apply semantic attributes to the object , which includes the understanding of its use , previous experience with the object and how it relates to others .
GENE EXPRESSION PATTERN is a GENE EXPRESSION PATTERN of a genetic REGULATORY NETWORK of a diseased cell .
DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION refers to the PROCESS in which individual words in the language model are given weights according to their significance for the topic .
a REGULAR EXPRESSION is a PATTERN that can match various text strings ; for example , l[0-9]+ matches l followed by one or more digits .
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING is a PROCESS of segmenting a large problem into a several smaller problems .
SPATIAL REASONING refers to the ABILITY to perceive the visual world accurately , to form mental images of physical objects and to recognize variations of objects .
a RANDOM WALK is a simple STOCHASTIC PROCESS .
Data Mining is a DATA PROCESSING using sophisticated data search capabilities and statistical algorithms to discover patterns and correlations in large preexisting databases .
Data Mining is a data processing using SOPHISTICATED DATA SEARCH CAPABILITIES and statistical algorithms to discover patterns and correlations in large preexisting databases .
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is the PROBABILITY of some event a , given the occurrence of some other event b. conditional probability is written p(a|b ) , and is read the probability of a , given b or the probability of a under the condition b .
a REGULAR EXPRESSION is an EXPRESSION used for pattern matching .
a CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELD is a mathematical MODEL for sequences that is similar in many ways to a hidden markov model , but is discriminative rather than generative in nature .
TREE SEARCH is an EXTENDED VERSION OF BINARY SEARCH .
in contrast , GRADIENT DESCENT is a NON-MEMORY-BASED METHOD .
MACHINE TRANSLATION refers to TRANSLATION from a source language into a target language using a computer .
STRING MATCHING is an ALGORITHM based on artificial intelligence , and various string matching methods have been disclosed to date .
SEARCH ENGINE is a kind of TECHNOLOGY rapidly developed with the booming information on the internet .
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is the PROBABILITY of some event a , given the occurrence of some other event b. conditional probability is written p(a|b ) , and is read the ( ) probability of a , given b or the probability of a under the condition b .
BOOLEAN LOGIC is a BINARY LOGIC SYSTEM , meaning that it takes into account two possible states .
SEMANTIC WEB is a group of METHODS and TECHNOLOGIES to allow machines to understand the meaning - or semantics - of information on the world wide web .
a GENE EXPRESSION PATTERN is a suite of EXPRESSION DATA for a gene along a suite of different experimental conditions
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING is a TECHNIQUE for making a series of related decisions .
GAME THEORY is the study of DECISION PROBLEMS in competitive situations .
a SOCIAL NETWORK is defined as a SOCIAL STRUCTURE made up of individuals called " .
EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE is a SPECIAL CASE OF MINKOWSKI DISTANCE with .
DATA MINING is defined as the NONTRIVIAL AUTOMATED PROCESS of EXTRACTION of interesting , significant , implicit , previously unknown and potentially useful information or patterns from data in large databases .
PATTERN MATCHING is the PROCESS of finding some or all of the occurrences of a target pattern in a source pattern .
DATA MINING is an AUTOMATED PROCESS for doing specification searches .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is a self stabilizing PROCESS which interleaves calls to constraints and variable objects .
Modal Logic is a system of LOGIC whose formal properties resemble certain moral and epistemological concepts .
an EQUIVALENCE RELATION is a RELATION that is reflexive , symmetric and transitive .
a GRAPHICAL MODEL is a GRAPH that represents a set of conditional independence relations among the vertices .
in machine learning , PATTERN RECOGNITION is the ASSIGNMENT of some sort of output value to a given input value , according to some specific algorithm .
a SOCIAL NETWORK is a SOCIAL STRUCTURE made up of individuals called nodes , which are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency , such as friendship , kinship , common interest , financial exchange , dislike , sexual relationships , or relationships of beliefs , knowledge or prestige .
QUICK SORT is an IN-PLACE SORT ALGORITHM that uses the divide and conquer paradigm .
SEQUENTIAL SEARCH is the most SIMPLE SEARCH TECHNIQUE .
MACHINE LEARNING is one of the FUNDAMENTAL AREAS of ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is one APPROACH that can be taken for this learning process .
POLYNOMIAL TIME is the set of BOOLEAN QUERIES EXPRESSIBLE in first-order logic extended by the ability to define new relations by induction .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is an EFFICIENT INFERENCE MECHANISM obtained with concurrent propagators accumulating information in a. constraint propagation is an iterative process controlled by the -b , -g and -s options .
MATRIX MULTIPLICATION is a BINARY OPERATOR .
RANDOM WALK is a REASONABLE MODEL for the .
FEATURE SELECTION is a PROCESS commonly used in machine learning , wherein a subset of the features available from the data are selected for application of a learning algorithm .
THEORY OF GAMES is a THEORY OF COMPETITION stated in terms of gains and losses among opposing players .
a FLOW NETWORK is a collection of NODES and ARCS .
a QBF SOLVER is a SOFTWARE PROGRAM to solve the qbf problem .
in graph theory , GRAPH COLORING is an ASSIGNMENT of colors , almost always taken to be consecutive integers starting from 1 without loss of generality , to certain objects in a graph .
KRUSKAL'S ALGORITHM is KRUSKAL 's ALGORITHM is an algorithm in graph theory that finds a minimum spanning tree for a connected weighted graph .
LOGISTIC REGRESSION is a DISCRIMINITIVE PROBABILISTIC CLASSIFICATION MODEL that operates over real-valued vector inputs .
PROBABILISTIC MODEL is a very POPULAR APPROACH of “model-based learning” based on bayesian theory .
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL is a SEARCH APPROACH which is based on a direct analysis of the content objects of a digital library .
PATTERN RECOGNITION is a sub-topic of MACHINE LEARNING .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is one of SEVERAL ACADEMIC EVENTS sanctioned by the university interscholastic league .
in computational linguistics , WORD SENSE DISAMBIGUATION is an OPEN PROBLEM OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING , which governs the process of identifying which sense of a word
COMPUTER SCIENCE is the study of ALGORITHMS , including : ? their formal and mathematical properties ? their hardware realizations ? their linguistic realizations ? their applications computer science is that the computer science people will only concentrate more on the programming side but the it professionals had to concentrate more on the previous things that the particular need for developing the software and how we will communicate to the clients through what media etc. COMPUTER SCIENCE is considered by some to have a much closer relationship with mathematics than many scientific disciplines , with some observers saying that computing is a mathematical science .
TEMPORAL LOGIC is a kind of MODAL LOGIC for reasoning about dynamic phenomenon .
ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY is a PRIMARY PROPERTY OF THE SOAR .
OBJECTIVE FUNCTION is the FUNCTION that we are trying to maximize , ie $ z$ , compare equation .
COSINE SIMILARITY is a MEASURE OF SIMILARITY between two vectors of n dimensions by finding the cosine of the angle between them , often used to compare documents in text mining .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is the PROCESS of communicating the domain reduction of a decision variable to all of the constraints that are stated over this variable .
PAGERANK is a kind of SEMANTIC WEB DISCOVERY , as is facebook 's social graph .
in computer science , DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING is a METHOD for reducing the runtime of algorithms exhibiting the properties of overlapping subproblems and optimal substructure , described below .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is a relatively new SCIENCE .
a RANDOM FIELD is a GENERALIZATION OF A STOCHASTIC PROCESS such that the underlying parameter need no longer be a simple real or integer valued time , but can instead be take values that are multidimensional vectors , or points on some manifold .
FEATURE EXTRACTION is a COMPLEX MATHEMATICAL TREE that would separate blood cells based on their physical features including the nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio , diameter and density .
in computability theory and computational complexity theory , a DECISION PROBLEM is a QUESTION in some formal system with a yes-or-no answer , depending on the values of some input parameters .
an UNDIRECTED GRAPH is a GRAPH in which the nodes are connected by .
a BAYESIAN NETWORK is a GRAPH-BASED MODEL OF JOINT MULTIVARIATE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS that captures properties of conditional independence between variables .
BOOLEAN LOGIC is a COMPLETE SYSTEM FOR LOGICAL OPERATIONS .
a NORMAL DISTRIBUTION is defined as the CONTINUOUS PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION , which indicates the data clustered around the mean or average of the data .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION refers to a TECHNIQUE for extracting useful information from these information sources .
FEATURE EXTRACTION is a BIG WORD FOR DATA SELECTION .
PAGERANK refers to the RANKING SYSTEM used at google for efficiently listing the search results .
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING is a PREDOMINANT PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUE in biosequence analysis .
in computer programming , a FREE VARIABLE is a VARIABLE referred to in a function that is not a local variable or an argument of that function .
in general , the BOYER-MOORE ALGORITHM is the most efficient METHOD to search for a pattern inside a string .
SINGULAR VALUE is the LARGEST SINGULAR VALUE that satisfies the error criterion .
BOOLEAN LOGIC is the PROCESSING LANGUAGE used by the chip to communicate bits of information throughout the computer .
a DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION is a VECTOR FIELD on a manifold a DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION is a vector field on a manifold .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is the MAIN FEATURE of any constraint solver .
MODEL CHECKING is an AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE , and tools that implement it check the behaviour of a program for .
CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION is a PARADIGM for specifying combinatorial problems in various areas of mathematics and computer science .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is the process of identifying RELEVANT INFORMATION where the criteria for relevance are predefined by the user in the form of a template that is to be filled .
LOGIC PROGRAMMING is a THEORY behind the prolog .
MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD is a GENERAL METHODOLOGY for estimating statistical parameters .
in mathematics , an INCIDENCE MATRIX is a MATRIX that shows the relationship between two classes of objects .
SKETCH RECOGNITION is the AUTOMATED RECOGNITION of hand-drawn diagrams by a computer .
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is an IMPERFECT MEASURE OF ASSOCIATIVE STRENGTH due to its failure to consider chance factors .
a WEB SERVICE is a method of COMMUNICATION between two electronic devices .
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL is the academic DISCIPLINE which underlies computer-based text search tools .
CONSISTENCY CHECKER is an OWL CONSISTENCY CHECKER that is > .
CROSS VALIDATION is the standard METHOD to estimate the performance of predictions over unseen data .
a HASH FUNCTION is any WELL-DEFINED PROCEDURE or mathematical FUNCTION that converts a large , possibly variable-sized amount of data into a small datum , usually a single integer that may serve as an index to an array .
a USER INTERFACE is a POINT in the system where a human being interacts with a computer .
SAT SOLVER is sat SOLVER or satisfiability solver is the tool that we have developed to detect feature interactions .
a LOGIC PROGRAM is a finite set of ATOMS and RULES of this form .
CRYPTOGRAPHY is the process of using SECRET CODES to protect information .
FEATURE EXTRACTION is a general term for METHODS of constructing combinations of the variables to get around these problems while still describing the data with sufficient accuracy .
PATTERN RECOGNITION is an INNATE ABILITY of animals .
a GAUSSIAN PROCESS is a GENERATIVE MODEL in which the weights of the target function are drawn according to a gaussian distribution .
in modal logic , a MODAL OPERATOR is an OPERATOR which forms propositions from propositions .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is an area of NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING that is concerned with examining unstructured text in order to extract concepts ( ) and relationships between these concepts .
DESCRIPTION LOGICS are the formal FOUNDATIONS of the owl ontology web language recommended by w3c .
a CONSISTENCY CHECKER is a PROGRAM that is run , usually on startup of the operating system , that scans the logical structure of the disk or storage media and checks to ensure that it is consistent with its specification .
in graph theory , GRAPH COLORING is a SPECIAL CASE OF GRAPH labeling .
in statistics , a POSTERIOR PROBABILITY is the PROBABILITY that an event will occur , given another event .
MACHINE TRANSLATION is the automatic translation of HUMAN LANGUAGE by computers .
MINIMUM SPANNING TREE is a TREE formed from the nodes of a graph and a subset of its edges , such that all nodes are connected and the total cost of the edges is minimal .
a GREEDY ALGORITHM is an ALGORITHM that follows the problem solving metaheuristic of making the locally optimum choice at each stage with the hope of finding the global optimum .
PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC is a branch of MATHEMATICS and PHILOSOPHY that is based on studying propositions or statements and the logical relationships they create .
a PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION is a THEORETICAL CONCEPT and MANY SUCH DISTRIBUTIONS can be expressed mathematically .
a DIAGONAL MATRIX refers to a MATRIX that can have any value along the diagonal , where the diagonal of a matrix b are the elements of the matrix at positions b. discriminant analysis is an ordination method used to determine which single variables within a pool of variables better discriminate between two or more defined groups .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is the study of MODELS , their representation , and their effects on the real-world processes from which those models are developed .
BEST-FIRST SEARCH is a SEARCH ALGORITHM which optimizes breadth-first search by expanding the most promising node chosen according to some rule .
Non-Euclidean geometry is a GEOMETRY based on axioms different from euclid 's .
artificial intelligence is the branch of COMPUTER SCIENCE that deal with writing computer programs that can solve problems creatively .
DEPTH-FIRST SEARCH is an ALGORITHM used to search tree structures .
BELLMAN EQUATION is a BELLMAN EQUATION , named after its discoverer , richard bellman , is a necessary condition for optimality associated with the mathematical optimization method known as dynamic programming .
in general , a CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY refers to the PROBABILITY of EVENT B HAPPENING , given that event a has already occurred .
an EQUIVALENCE RELATION is a RELATION on a setthat satisfies three extra conditions .
FEATURE EXTRACTION refers to TECHNIQUES to create new features from transformations of the originally chosen ones .
a FLOW NETWORK is a REAL FUNCTION with the following three properties for all nodes and .
an UNDIRECTED GRAPH refers to a GRAPH in which the edges connecting nodes have no direction .
Boolean logic is a system of SYMBOLIC LOGIC devised by george boole .
PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC is a LOGIC at the sentential level .
a RANDOM FIELD is a GENERALIZATION OF A STOCHASTIC PROCESS such that the underlying parameter need no longer be a simple real or integer valued time , but can instead be take values which are multidimensional vectors , or points on some manifold .
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL is an inherently INTERACTIVE PROCESS , and the users can change direction by modifying the query surrogate , the conceptual query or their understanding of their information need .
a BOOLEAN FUNCTION is a specific BOOLEAN EXPRESSION .
a MARKOV MODEL is a FINITE STATE MACHINE which changes state once every time unit and each time .
NP-COMPLETENESS is a STATEMENT about coming up with .
PROBABILISTIC MODEL is a very POPULAR APPROACH of “ model-based learning ” based on bayesian theory .
MACHINE LEARNING refers to the ability of COMPUTERS to automatically acquire new knowledge , learning from , for example , past cases or experience , from the computer 's own experiences , or from exploration .
MACHINE LEARNING is a SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE that is concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to change behavior based on data , such as from sensor data or databases .
BINARY SPACE PARTITION is BINARY SPACE partitioning is a method for recursively subdividing a space into convex sets by hyperplanes .
a CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is defined as the PROBABILITY of one event , given that some other event has occurred .
GAME THEORY is an ANALYSIS OF INTERACTIONS in which the outcome a person faces depends not only on his strategy of action , but also on the strategies of others .
OBJECTIVE FUNCTION is a FUNCTION that defines how well data fit a particular hypothesis .
a DERIVATION TREE is the PLANAR REPRESENTATION of a sequence of derivations .
RANDOM VARIABLE is a FUNCTION which assigns a unique numerical value to every possible outcome of an event .
LOGISTIC REGRESSION is the ONLY METHOD that consistently improves active basis model .
face recognition is the visual perception of FAMILIAR FACES .
in mathematics , the HARMONIC SERIES is the DIVERGENT INFINITE SERIES .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is a TECHNIQUE that aims at identifying relevant information , structuring this information , and providing means to add semantics .
a BINARY HEAP is a HEAP which is maintained as a complete binary tree , meaning all levels are full except possibly the last level , which is filled out from the left .
DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS is a classical statistical APPROACH for classifying samples of unknown classes , based on training samples with known classes .
a HYBRID MODEL refers to an EXPRESSION of a state transition such as the one shown in fig .
a PATTERN MATCHING is a LIST OF CLAUSES .
HASH TABLE is a TABLE that contains both key value and mapped value .
MATRIX MULTIPLICATION is an ODD PROCEDURE , but a brilliant one .
PAGERANK is one of the METHODS GOOGLE uses to determine a page 's relevance or importance .
MINIMUM SPANNING TREE is an UNDIRECTED NETWORK in which all the samples are linked together with the smallest possible network .
ALPHA-BETA SEARCH is a REFINEMENT OF MINIMAX SEARCH that allows us to prune the game tree .
a FEATURE VECTOR refers to the GENERATION of at least two features .
heuristic rule is a COMMONSENSE RULE -lrb- or set of rules -rrb- intended to increase the probability of solving some problem .
a RANDOM WALK is a SIMPLE STOCHASTIC PROCESS .
a SEARCH ENGINE is an INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM designed to help find information stored on a computer system .
in statistics , a GENERATIVE MODEL is a MODEL for randomly generating observable data , typically given some hidden parameters .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is defined as a SYSTEM that .
LINEAR PROGRAMMING is a MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUE useful for allocation of scarce or limited .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is a form of SHALLOW TEXT PROCESSING which locates a specified set of relevant items in natural language documents .
GRAPH MINING is the field concerned with extracting interesting PATTERNS and knowledge from graph or network structured data , such as can be found in chemistry , bioinformatics , the world wide web , social networks etc. GRAPH MINING is the study of how to extract patters from social networks represented as graphs .
a DECISION TREE is a connected set of NODES that begins at a root node and ends at one or more leaf nodes .
a RANDOM VARIABLE is a FUNCTION that assigns a real number to each outcome in the sample space of a random experiment .
Gaussian distribution is a theoretical DISTRIBUTION with finite mean and variance .
a BOOLEAN FORMULA is a COMBINATION OF BOOLEAN VARIABLES using the logical connectives .
PAGERANK is a LINK ANALYSIS ALGORITHM , named after larry page , used by the google internet search engine that assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents , such as the world wide web , with the purpose of measuring its relative importance within the set .
a UTILITY FUNCTION is a MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION that assigns a value to all possible choices .
a HASH FUNCTION is a FUNCTION which when given a key , generates an address in the table .
DATA MINING is the PROCESS of utilizing the results of data exploration to adjust or enhance business strategies .
a FINITE STATE MACHINE is popularly used as a MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF A SYNCHRONOUS ORDER MACHINE and protocol , and also relates to a method of verifying a synchronous sequential circuit and protocol .
in statistics , a MIXTURE MODEL is a PROBABILISTIC MODEL FOR DENSITY ESTIMATION using a mixture distribution .
a SEARCH ENGINE is typically a COMPUTER PROGRAM that retrieves documents , files or data from a database or from a computer network , such as the internet , usually based on keywords input by a user .
a BOOLEAN FUNCTION is a CONDITIONAL TAUTOLOGY with a cube as the given subset of the input space if the BOOLEAN FUNCTION is simplified to boolean constant 1 after the input variables in the BOOLEAN FUNCTION are substituted with these 1 's or 0 's according to the substitution requirements provided by the cube .
a CONVEX HULL refers to a POLYGON composed of the convex hull lines .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is a kind of DATA MINING TECHNOLOGY which is widely used in internet .
in sociology , ACTION THEORY refers to the THEORY of social action presented by the american theorist talcott parsons .
in fact , IMAGE RETRIEVAL is a WIDER DOMAIN that contains object recognition but also integrates user interactions .
GRADIENT DESCENT is a FIRST-ORDER OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM .
a FEATURE VECTOR is an N-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR of numerical features that represent an object [ 44 ] .
a RANDOM VARIABLE is a FUNCTION from s , the sample space , to r , the real line ; in other words , a numerical value calculated from the outcome of a random experiment .
MACHINE TRANSLATION is the use of COMPUTER SOFTWARE to translate text from one language into another .
in statistics , a MIXTURE MODEL is a PROBABILISTIC MODEL for density estimation using a mixture distribution .
an ADJACENCY LIST is a RAGGED ARRAY .
PAGERANK is the NUMERIC VALUE characterizing the importance of a page in google .
CRYPTOGRAPHY is an IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF SECURE INFORMATION and communications systems and a variety of applications have been developed that incorporate cryptographic methods to provide data security .
a GAUSSIAN PROCESS is a POPULAR NONPARAMETRIC MODEL FOR REGRESSION that specifies a prior over functions .
BEAM SEARCH is a HEURISTIC SEARCH ALGORITHM that is an optimization of best-first search that reduces its memory requirement .
a DIAGONAL MATRIX is defined as a SQUARE MATRIX are all zero .
a SEARCH PROBLEM is then defined as a SEARCH GRAPH , START and goal states and a heuristic .
a random walk is a STOCHASTIC PROCESS consisting of a sequence of changes each of whose characteristics -lrb- as magnitude or direction -rrb- is determined by chance .
PAGERANK is defined as a NUMERIC VALUE used by google to show the value a page has on the internet .
a linear equation is a POLYNOMIAL EQUATION OF THE FIRST DEGREE .
GENE EXPRESSION PATTERN is a GENE EXPRESSION PATTERN of a GENETIC REGULATORY NETWORK OF A DISEASED CELL .
LINEAR PROGRAMMING is a MATHEMATICAL METHOD for determining a way to achieve the best outcome in a given mathematical model for some list of requirements represented as linear equations .
an UNDIRECTED GRAPH is a TREE if and only if there is a unique simple path between any two of it vertices .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is a YOUNG DISCIPLINE that is evolving rapidly from its beginnings in the 1940 's .
a GAUSSIAN PROCESS is a popular NONPARAMETRIC MODEL for regression that specifies a prior over functions .
ALPHA-BETA SEARCH is a METHOD that reduces the number of nodes explored in minimax strategy .
DESCRIPTION LOGICS are the most EXPRESSIVE DECIDABLE LOGICS with classical semantics , and good reasoning procedures .
a CONSTRAINT NETWORK is a series of NODES linked by constraints .
a BINARY HEAP is a HEAP-ORDERED COMPLETE BINARY TREE which is implemented using an array .
LINEAR PROGRAMMING is the study of OPTIMIZATION OF LINEAR FUNCTIONS with linear constraints .
a NORMAL DISTRIBUTION is any DISTRIBUTION that is not unusual .
in game theory , NASH EQUILIBRIUM is a SOLUTION CONCEPT OF A GAME involving two or more players , in which each player is assumed to know the equilibrium strategies of the other players , and no player has anything to gain by changing only his or her .
STANDARD DEVIATION is a PRECISE MEASUREMENT OF RANDOM ERRORS caused in an experiment .
FACE RECOGNITION is a new FEATURE among digital cameras .
an ARRAY is a SINGLE PROGRAMMING VARIABLE with multiple compartments .
a GREEDY ALGORITHM is any ALGORITHM that follows the problem solving metaheuristic of making the locally optimal choice at each stage .
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD is a type of COMPUTER SIMULATION using mathematical equations .
SKETCH RECOGNITION is a type of RECOGNITION that its role is to distinguish shapes drawn .
a GAUSSIAN PROCESS is a popular NONPARAMETRIC MODEL for regression and classification that specifies a prior over functions .
a BOOLEAN FUNCTION is a SPECIFIC BOOLEAN EXPRESSION .
TEMPORAL LOGIC is a SYSTEM for representing and reasoning about time .
LOGIC PROGRAMMING is the act of specifying PROGRAMS as logical statements assertions .
BUCKET SORT is a GENERALIZATION OF PIGEONHOLE SORT .
Nash equilibrium is a stable STATE of a system that involves several interacting participants in which no participant can gain by a change of strategy as long as all the other participants remain unchanged .
a RANDOM GRAPH is a GRAPH in which properties such as the number of graph vertices , graph edges , and connections between them are determined in some random way .
MODAL LOGIC is the study of the LAWS of INFERENCE for judgments such as it is necessary that , it is possible that , k knows that , k affirms that , etc. in logic , a normal MODAL LOGIC is a set l of modal formulas such that l contains .
MACHINE LEARNING is an area of ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE concerned with the development of techniques that allow computers to &ldquo .
LATENT VARIABLE is a VARIABLE in the model that is not measured .
a convex polygon is a POLYGON such that no side extended cuts any other side or vertex .
SKETCH RECOGNITION is the automated understanding of HAND-DRAWN DIAGRAMS .
in computer science , a SEARCH TREE is a TREE DATA STRUCTURE in whose nodes data values can be stored from some ordered set , which is such that in an in-order traversal of the tree the nodes are visited in ascending order of the stored values .
DEPTH FIRST SEARCH is a SEARCH ALGORITHM that extends the current path as far as possible before backtracking to the last choice point and trying the next alternative path .
a HASH FUNCTION is an ALGORITHM that takes a string of any length as input and produces a fixed-length string as output , hash functions are used in cryptography for authentication and message integrity .
MODEL CHECKING is a promising APPROACH to building reliable firmware .
OBJECT RECOGNITION refers to the PROCESS by which computers and robotic devices identify and interpret visual cues in their environment .
a NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY is a branch of GEOMETRY which does not hold parallel postulate .
KERNEL METHOD is a very USEFUL TECHNIQUE in data mining that is applicable to any algorithms .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is an area of MACHINE LEARNING which addresses how an autonomous agent can learn long-term successful behavior through interaction with its environment .
FEATURE EXTRACTION refers to VARIOUS QUANTITATIVE MEAS-UREMENTS OF MEDICAL IMAGES typically used for decision making related to the pathology of a structure or tissue .
in artificial intelligence and operations research , CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION is the PROCESS of finding a solution to a set of constraints that impose conditions that the variables must satisfy .
DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION is the TECHNIQUE of automatically learning a low-dimensional representation for data .
CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELD is a WELL-KNOWN MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUE for labeling sequential data .
TRAINING DATA is DATA used in the creation of a classifier .
a SPATIAL NETWORK is a NETWORK OF SPATIAL ELEMENTS .
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING is a WIDELY-USED OPERATIONAL ALGORITHM for solving classes of optimisation problems that can be divided into stages or sub-problems .
HASH FUNCTION is a FUNCTION associated with a table , that computes hash code .
LABELED DATA is a DATA ITEM whose class assignment is known independent of the classifier being constructed .
QUICK SORT is a DIVIDE-AND-CONQUER SORTING ALGORITHM .
MACHINE LEARNING is a branch of COMPUTER SCIENCE covering software that uses data to improve it 's accuracy at some given task5 .
a LOGIC PROGRAM is a FINITE SET OF ATOMS and rules of this form .
OBJECTIVE FUNCTION is the FUNCTION to numerically optimize .
overall , FEATURE SELECTION is a very IMPORTANT METHOD that is often applied to reduce the computational cost or to save storage space , for problems with either high dimensionality or limited resources .
a SOCIAL NETWORK is a WEB-BASED SERVICE that provides ways for users to interact , such as file sharing , blogging , and discussion groups , to build communities of people who have common interests .
a UTILITY FUNCTION is a FORMULA that shows the total utility associated with each bundle .
TIME COMPLEXITY refers to the COMPLEXITY of allocating and deallocating of memory space when a process requests for memory space is accomplished or when a process comes out of memory .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is a DISCIPLINE which involves the study of computers and computations .
IMAGE ANNOTATION is a very interesting SEMANTIC WEB TOPIC , because it suggests a way in which semantic web-based searching could be much more effective than text .
BINARY CLASSIFICATION is a CORE DATA MINING TASK .
a REGULAR EXPRESSION is an ALGEBRAIC FORMULA whose value is a pattern consisting of a set of strings , called the language of the expression .
DIRECTED GRAPH is a GRAPH with signed edges .
INFERENCE RULE refers to INTELLIGENCE that ties concepts together .
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING is a field of COMPUTER SCIENCE and LINGUISTICS concerned with the interactions between computers and human languages .
FEATURE EXTRACTION refers to the ADAPTABILITY of the network to new services , features and functions that may be developed by virtually anyone including service providers , system operators , third party vendors and end-users .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is a CURRENT WEB REALITY , GALWAY CONFERENCE told - the irish times - fri , sep 10 , 2010. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE refers to nonbiological ( ) intelligence , while nanotechnology is a term coined by dr. artificial intelligence is an attempt to arrive at the same point through top-down design .
IMAGE ANNOTATION is a very INTERESTING SEMANTIC WEB TOPIC , because it suggests a way in which semantic web-based searching could be much more effective than text .
a DIAGONAL MATRIX is a SQUARE MATRIX with entries only along the diagonal , with all others being zero .
MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD is an ATTRACTIVE METHOD of estimating covariance parameters in spatial models based on gaussian processes .
DATA MINING is one of the TECHNOLOGIES which provide analytical ability to the organizations for leveraging on customer relationships and thus customer loyalty and this paper analyzes the potential of data mining for building and managing better relationships .
CRYPTOGRAPHY is the process of using secret CODES to protect information .
a DIAGONAL MATRIX is a SQUARE MATRIX that all of its nonzero entries are on the diagonal .
a Nash equilibrium is a STABLE STATE OF A SYSTEM that involves several interacting participants in which no participant can gain by a change of strategy as long as all the other participants remain unchanged .
a DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION is an EQUATION involving an unknown .
in probability theory , a MARKOV MODEL is a STOCHASTIC MODEL that assumes the markov property .
LONGEST COMMON SUBSTRING is the longest COMMON SUBSTRING PROBLEM is to find the longest string that is a substring of two or more strings .
MACHINE LEARNING refers to the development of ALGORITHMS that quantify relationships within data for purposes of drawing inferences or making predictions .
EM ALGORITHM is an ITERATIVE PROCEDURE .
in mathematical logic , a HORN CLAUSE is a CLAUSE with at most one positive literal .
a GREEDY ALGORITHM is an OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM which makes a locally optimal decision at each step .
a HARMONIC SERIES is a continued FRACTION-LIKE SERIES defined by .
LOGISTIC REGRESSION is an IMPORTANT MACHINE learning technique , widely used in social science , statistics , physics and many other fields .
TIME COMPLEXITY is a MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT of effort required by an algorithm .
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING is a POWERFUL TECHNIQUE for solving problems that might otherwise appear to be extremely difficult to solve in polynomial time .
LANGUAGE MODEL is a statistical LANGUAGE MODEL assigns a probability to a sequence of m words by means of a probability distribution .
PATTERN MATCHING is the application of ANALYTICAL RULES to a block of data to identify a feature of that block of data .
MACHINE LEARNING is an IMPORTANT SUBFIELD OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE involving automated discovery of concepts from examples , or , more generally , of patterns in data .
a DISCRIMINATIVE MODEL is a PROBABILITY MODEL in which the most likely values of hidden variables are calculated directly from the observed variable values without using the probability of the observed values .
a LOGIC PROGRAM is a FINITE SET of universally quantified axioms .
MACHINE LEARNING refers to a SYSTEM capable of acquiring and integrating the knowledge automatically .
MERGE SORT is MERGE SORT is an o(n ) comparison-based sorting algorithm .
MACHINE TRANSLATION refers to the PROCESS of receiving an input string in a source language and automatically generating an output string in a target language .
CRYPTOGRAPHY is a TECHNOLOGY for creating the core of information security .
MODEL CHECKING is an AUTOMATED VERIFICATION METHOD for checking temporal properties of finite-state models of systems .
LANGUAGE MODEL is the LANGUAGE MODEL contains a list of the words and their probabilities when used with voice recognition application .
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is the PROBABILITY of some event a , given the occurrence of some other event b. conditional probability is an invisible component of a contingency table .
in general , a HYBRID MODEL is a COMBINATION OF A CONTINUOUS SYSTEM MODEL expressed by ordinary differential or algebraic equations or simultaneous equations comprising ordinary differential or algebraic equations , with a state transition model for expressing state transitions associated with occurrences of events .
a GREEDY ALGORITHM is an ALGORITHM that gobbles up all of its favorites first .
CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION PROBLEM is CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION PROBLEMS or csps are mathematical problems defined as a set of objects whose state must satisfy a number of constraints or limitations .
an INFERENCE RULE is a MECHANICAL MEANS of producing new predicate calculus sentences from a given set of sentences .
a LINEAR EQUATION is a POLYNOMIAL EQUATION OF THE FIRST DEGREE .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is an ITERATIVE APPROACH that eliminates these problems to comes up with an approximate solution to the utility function .
HUMAN LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGY is the branch of INFORMATION SCIENCE that deals with natural language information .
EM ALGORITHM is the FORGETFUL EM ALGORITHM , and the pluralities of actual and temporary algorithm functions are q-functions .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION refers to a TECHNIQUE for extracting useful information from these information sources .
a GAUSSIAN PROCESS is a STOCHASTIC PROCESS {
a USER INTERFACE is a kind of INTERFACE that enables a user to conveniently use electronic appliances by displaying menus required to manipulate functions of the electronic appliance , an operation state of the electronic appliance , setting environments , and so forth , by text and or graphics on a display screen .
in general , the BOYER-MOORE ALGORITHM is the most EFFICIENT METHOD to search for a pattern inside a string .
LOGISTIC REGRESSION is the STATISTICIAN 's METHOD of choice when the outcome is a dichotomous variable such as did did not earn bachelor 's degree .
a HASH TABLE is a DATA STRUCTURE such as an array that is made up of a number of indexed elements .
DECISION TREE is a TREE like structure that represents the various conditions and the subsequent possible actions .
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING is an ANALYSIS of current or colloquial language usage without the sometimes misleading effect of formal grammars .
SPATIAL REASONING is an INTELLIGENCE that effortlessly blends , weaves , decorates and measures geometric constructs once students learn the basic connect-the-dots knowledge that governs this system .
MACHINE LEARNING is an area of ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE involving developing techniques to allow computers to learn .
in computer science , an ADJACENCY LIST is a DATA STRUCTURE for representing graphs .
KERNEL METHOD is a very useful TECHNIQUE in data mining that is applicable to any algorithms .
BEAM SEARCH is a METHOD similar to iterative best improvement , but it maintains up to k assignments instead of just one .
a HORN CLAUSE is a CLAUSE with at most one positive literal , called the head of the clause , and any number of negative literals , forming the body of the clause .
Practical Programming is the branch of ENGINEERING SCIENCE that studies -lrb- with the aid of computers -rrb- computable processes and structures .
MACHINE LEARNING is the subfield of ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE that is concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to improve their performance over time based on data , such as from sensor data or databases .
a BOOLEAN FUNCTION is a characteristic FUNCTION of a subset of the input space if its value is 1 for and only for all points in the subset .
a BINARY SEARCH is a DICHOTOMIC DIVIDE and CONQUER SEARCH ALGORITHM .
a HASH FUNCTION is an ALGORITHM which creates a digital representation or " .
DATA SET is DATA SETS allow for convenience in access by the tase.2 user .
GAME THEORY is the study of DECISION PROBLEMS in competitive situations .
MACHINE LEARNING is a scientific DISCIPLINE that is concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to evolve behaviors based on empirical data , such as from sensor data or databases .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is the branch of COMPUTER SCIENCE that attempts to solve problems for which there is no known efficient solution , but which we know are efficiently solvable , because some intelligence can solve the problem .
HTN PLANNING is an AI PLANNING METHODOLOGY that creates plans by task decomposition .
STANDARD DEVIATION refers to the PROBABILITY that a single measurement or single set will vary from the meanstandard error refers to the probability a group of measurements or a technique will vary from the meanstandard error=standard deviation of a single measurement or set square root of the number of measurementsif what you want to show is best represented by error bars ( ) , then sem is probably what you wantif a scatter plot shows things better , than sd is likely what you wanthth .
BEST-FIRST SEARCH is a SEARCH ALGORITHM which explores a graph by expanding the most promising node chosen according to a specified rule .
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY THEORY is a branch of the THEORY of COMPUTATION in computer science that investigates the problems related to the resources required to run algorithms , and the inherent difficulty in providing algorithms that are efficient fo .
a MIXTURE MODEL is a collection of DISTRIBUTIONS D. in this role , the MIXTURE MODEL is a robust estimator .
MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD is a PREFERRED METHOD for estimating the covariance parameters .
WEB MINING refers to the PROCESS of discovering potentially useful and previously unknown information or knowledge from web data .
a REGULAR EXPRESSION is a SPECIAL TEXT STRING for describing a search pattern .
a BAYESIAN NETWORK is a COMPACT REPRESENTATION OF JOINT PROBABILITY FUNCTION .
a HARMONIC SERIES is a CONTINUED FRACTION-LIKE SERIES defined by .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING refers to the PROCESS by which an animal understands the reward values of stimuli in the world and of their own emitted actions .
cryptography is the ACT of writing in code or cipher .
a REGULAR EXPRESSION is a kind of FORMULA that specifies patterns in text strings .
in addition , the HASH FUNCTION is a kind of ONE-WAY FUNCTION .
LANGUAGE MODEL is a LANGUAGE MODEL captures the regularities in the spoken language and is used by the speech recognizer to estimate the probability of word sequences .
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING is an ALGORITHM in which an optimization problem is solved by saving the optimal scores for the solution of every subproblem instead of recalculating them .
a GRAPHICAL MODEL is a PROBABILISTIC MODEL for which a graph denotes the conditional independence structure between random variables .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is a kind of TECHNOLOGY and it has been the subject of much contemporary philosophical debate that is ripe for the picking .
DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE is an ESSENTIAL PART OF MOST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS TODAY .
a BREADTH FIRST SEARCH is an ALGORITHM , in which you start at some arbitrary node , and then visit each of the nodes adjacent to the current node .
GAME THEORY is a mathematical THEORY that applies to certain situations in which there are conflicts of interest between two or more individuals or groups .
DATA MINING is a kind of DATABASE ANALYSIS APPLICATION that uncovers patterns in a collection of data .
CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION is a basic PROCESS found in all sorts of cognitive processes , but it can be an elusive idea to students encountering it for the first time .
an UNDIRECTED GRAPH is an ordered MULTISET OF UNDIRECTED EDGES , plus the usual meta data .
an OPTIMAL SOLUTION is an INTEGRATED SYSTEM for detecting attacks on several levels .
a WORST CASE ANALYSIS is a NONSTATISTICAL TOLERANCE ANALYSIS TOOL used to identify whether combinations of inputs at their upper and lower specification limits always produce an acceptable output measure .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is an EFFICIENT INFERENCE MECHANISM obtained with concurrent propagators accumulating information in a constraint store .
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING is the use of COMPUTERS to handle information expressed in human languages .
COMPUTER VISION is the SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY of obtaining models , meaning and control information from visual data .
a LINEAR EQUATION is an EQUATION for a straight line .
a MATRIX is a RECTANGULAR ARRAY OF QUANTITIES or expressions set out by rows and columns .
in computer science , BEAM SEARCH is a HEURISTIC SEARCH ALGORITHM that explores a graph by expanding the most promising node in a limited set .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is a RELATIVELY NEW SCIENCE .
MODEL CHECKING is an AUTOMATIC TECHNIQUE that can establish , via exhaustive analysis of the model of a system , whether its behaviour is correct with respect to a given specification .
DEPTH FIRST SEARCH is DEPTH-FIRST SEARCH is an algorithm for traversing or searching a tree , tree structure , or graph .
PATTERN MATCHING refers to the PROCESS of SEARCHING for known byte patterns in a stream of data .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is a type of INFORMATION RETRIEVAL whose goal is to automatically extract structured information from unstructured and or semi-structured machine-readable documents .
a DECISION TREE is a DECISION SUPPORT TOOL that uses a tree-like graph or model of decisions and their possible consequences , including chance event outcomes , resource costs , and utility .
SEMANTIC SPACE is an INDEFINITE DOMAIN OF POSSIBLE EXPRESSION to which the current text bears some active and particular relationship .
a FINITE STATE MACHINE is an IMAGINARY MACHINE that is used to study and design systems that .
in computer science , COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY THEORY is the branch of the THEORY of COMPUTATION that studies the resources , or cost , of the computation required to solve a given computational problem .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is a type of INFORMATION RETRIEVAL whose goal is to automatically extract structured information from unstructured machine-readable documents , generally human language texts by means of natural language processing .
RANDOM FIELD is a CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELD , in which each random variable may also be conditioned upon a set of global observations .
an ARRAY is a single PROGRAMMING VARIABLE with multiple compartments .
Linear programming is a MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUE used in economics .
a USER INTERFACE is the SYSTEM by which people ( ) interact with a machine .
a REGULAR EXPRESSION is a STRING that is used to describe or match a set of strings according to certain syntax rules .
COMPUTER VISION is the SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY OF MACHINES that see , where see in this case means that the machine is able to extract information from an image that is necessary to solve some task .
in sociology , ACTION THEORY refers to the THEORY of SOCIAL ACTION presented by the american theorist talcott parsons .
COMPUTER SCIENCE or computing science is the study of the THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS of information and COMPUTATION , and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is a branch of COMPUTER SCIENCE which aims at building machines that can think , feel and take decisions just like humans do .
KL DIVERGENCE is an ASYMMETRIC DIVERGENCE MEASURE originating in information theory , which measures how bad the probability distribution .
FEATURE EXTRACTION is a complex MATHEMATICAL TREE that would separate blood cells based on their physical features including the nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio , diameter and density .
MACHINE LEARNING is a SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE that is concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to evolve behaviors based on empirical data , such as from sensor data or databases .
MODEL CHECKING is a TECHNIQUE for verifying a system composed of concurrent finite-state machines .
PATTERN RECOGNITION refers to the PROCESS of recognizing a set of stimuli arranged in a certain pattern that is characteristic of that set of stimuli .
a PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION is a TABLE GRAPH that depicts the assignment of probabilities to the assumption of specific values by a given random variable .
MACHINE LEARNING is concerned with COMPUTER PROGRAMS that automatically improve their performance through experience .
HEAP SORT is an optimal way of SORTING INFORMATION .
PATTERN RECOGNITION is the SCIENCE of observing ( ) the environment , learning to distinguish patterns of interest (
DEPTH-FIRST SEARCH is a GRAPH TRAVERSAL that is algorithmically similar to breadth-first search , but ends up visiting vertices in an order very different from breadth-first search .
GAME THEORY is a branch of MATHEMATICS concerned with the analysis of conflict situations .
TEMPORAL LOGIC is a type of MODAL LOGIC that is used for reasoning about changing properties with time .
MODEL CHECKING is a TECHNIQUE to find bugs in systems be systematically exploring their state spaces .
in graph theory , an ADJACENCY LIST is the REPRESENTATION of all edges or arcs in a graph as a list .
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY THEORY is a branch of the THEORY of COMPUTATION in theoretical computer science and mathematics that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty .
ERROR RATE is an INCOMING BIT ERROR RATE .
DATA MINING refers to the application of ALGORITHMS for extracting patterns from data without the additional steps of the kdd process .
LOGISTIC REGRESSION is a MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS METHOD OF MARKETING INFORMATION becoming more and more used because the number of conditions that must be achieved are lower than , for example , in the case of discriminant analysis .
MACHINE LEARNING is the ABILITY of a computer program to adapt to its environment to achieve some desired outcome .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is a TECHNOLOGY for reading reports and picking out the bits of information that are needed by users .
MACHINE LEARNING is simply the ABILITY of the machine to learn from the previous experience or history and perform better at a given task , as the future mimics the past .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is an area of NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING that is concerned with examining unstructured text in order to extract concepts and relationships between these concepts .
DESCRIPTION LOGICS are the FORMAL FOUNDATIONS of the owl ontology web language recommended by w3c .
in graph theory , the INCIDENCE LIST is a VARIANT OF THE ADJACENCY LIST that allows for the description of the edges at the cost of additional edges .
DATA MATRIX is the most POPULAR 2D CODE for marking small items .
in statistical terms , the POSTERIOR PROBABILITY is the PROBABILITY of EVENT a occurring given that event b has occurred .
a COALITIONAL GAME is a REAL-VALUED SET FUNCTION V defined on an algebra f of subsets of a space x such that v(0)=0 .
an UNDIRECTED GRAPH is a GRAPH in which relations between pairs of objects are symmetric .
a CONSTRAINT NETWORK is a set of VARIABLES and CONSTRAINTS that inter-relate and define the valid values for the variables .
DEPTH-FIRST SEARCH is a SPECIAL CASE OF BEST-FIRST SEARCH .
OBJECT RECOGNITION refers to the DEVICES ABILITY to recognize the presence and orientation of tagged objects placed on top of it .
DATA SET is a group of RELATED VALUES which we are considering together .
a SEARCH ALGORITHM is a set of predetermined RULES that control how a search engine works .
a SEARCH ENGINE is typically a SOFTWARE INTERFACE that queries a database in response to words , phrases , and or images supplied by the user .
FACE RECOGNITION is an EXAMPLE OF NON-VERBAL MEMORY .
in music theory , EQUIVALENCE CLASS is an EQUALITY or EQUIVALENCE between sets or twelve-tone rows .
a COMBINATORIAL AUCTION is an AUCTION in which bidders can place bids on combinations of items , or �packages , � rather than just individual items .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is the branch of COMPUTER SCIENCE that attempts to solve problems for which there is no known efficient solution , but which we know are efficiently solvable , ( ) because some intelligence can solve the problem ( ) .
information science is the SCIENCES concerned with gathering , manipulating , storing , retrieving , and classifying recorded information .
PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC is a FORMAL SYSTEM in mathematics and logic .
PATTERN RECOGNITION is the SCIENCE of observing the environment , learning to distinguish patterns of interest
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING is the METHOD for solving different sophisticated programming problems .
a FREE VARIABLE is a REFINABLE PARAMETER that can be used to impose a variety of additional linear constraints , e. a formal language is a set of words , i. in statistics , a frequency distribution is a list of the values that a variable takes in a sample .
SKETCH RECOGNITION is the automated recognition of HAND-DRAWN DIAGRAMS by a computer .
a LOSS FUNCTION is a REAL LOWER-BOUNDED FUNCTION L on ? .
CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION is the subfield of ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE which deals with finding a best practical solution under a list of constraints and prioritizations .
OBJECT RECOGNITION is the BRAIN 's ABILITY to recall an object 's shape and properties .
DATA SET is a collection of DATA and accompanying documentation which relate to a specific theme .
in mathematics , EUCLIDEAN SPACE is the EUCLIDEAN PLANE and THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE OF EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY , as well as the generalizations of these notions to higher dimensions .
a COMBINATORIAL AUCTION is an AUCTION where multiple items are for sale simultaneously to a set of buyers .
a DECISION TREE is a TREE in which each non-leaf node has associated with it an attribute , each leaf node has associated with it a classification , and each arc has associated with it one of the possible values of the attribute at the node where the arc is directed from .
a DERIVATION TREE is the PLANAR REPRESENTATION of a sequence of derivations .
QUICK SORT is an EXAMPLE OF IN-PLACE SORT .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is a branch of COMPUTER SCIENCE that makes the computers capable enough to perform complex tasks , i. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is concerned with the attempt to develop computer programs that will be capable of performing difficult cognitive tasks .
a WEB SERVICE is a SOFTWARE COMPONENT that is described via wsdl and is capable of being accessed via standard network protocols such as but not limited to soap over http .
COMPUTER VISION refers to the automatic EXTRACTION of information about a scene based on images of it .
Differential equation is an EQUATION containing differentials of a function .
a STATE DIAGRAM is an ANALYSIS TOOL that can be used when a system passes through a series of discrete states during operation .
FEATURE SELECTION refers to the SELECTION of an optimum subset of features derived from these input variables .
a SIFT FEATURE is a SELECTED IMAGE REGION with an associated descriptor .
GRAPH MINING is a special case of STRUCTURED DATA MINING .
propositional logic is a branch of SYMBOLIC LOGIC dealing with propositions as units and with their combinations and the connectives that relate them .
a DECISION PROBLEM is a PARAMETERIZED PROBLEM with a yes no answer .
a CONVEX POLYGON is defined as a POLYGON with all its interior angles less than 180° .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is a CONVENIENT MEANS for performing geometry management , for tracking state in a user interface , and for evaluating algebraic formulas .
MACHINE TRANSLATION is the main field of LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGY and is connected to most of its other fields .
an ADJACENCY LIST is a LIST OF NUMERIC VECTORS , containing the neighbor vertices for each vertex .
LANGUAGE MODEL is a set of RULES for a particular language that are used as the primary context for recognizing words .
a BEST-FIRST SEARCH is an ITERATIVE SEARCH that at each iteration tries to extend the partial solution with the best estimated cost .
DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS is a classical STATISTICAL APPROACH for classifying samples of unknown classes , based on training samples with known classes .
MACHINE TRANSLATION is the automatic TRANSLATION of human languages , such as english and chinese .
DESCRIPTION LOGIC is a simplified PREDICATE LOGIC .
in mathematics , the HARMONIC SERIES is the DIVERGENT INFINITE SERIES : its name derives from the concept of overtones , or harmonics , in music : the wavelengths of the overtones of a vibrating string are 1 2 , 1 3 , 1 4 , etc .
SERVICE COMPOSITION is the ABILITY to sequence and .
a BOOLEAN FUNCTION is a CHARACTERISTIC FUNCTION of a subset of the input space if its value is 1 for and only for all points in the subset .
DATA MINING is an IMPORTANT METHODOLOGY for choosing appropriate multivariate model in diagnosis , treatment and prognosis .
DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS is a statistical TECHNIQUE to classify objects into mutually exclusive and exhaustive groups based on a set of measurable object 's features .
a COMBINATORIAL AUCTION is an ATTRACTIVE MECHANISM when there exist strong complementarities over several goods , and the source of those complementarities varies for different suppliers .
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL is the ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE which underlies computer-based text search tools .
PATTERN RECOGNITION is the SCIENCE of observing the environment , learning to distinguish patterns of interest , and using that information to classify future examples .
TIME SERIES DATA is a set of DATA gathered over time to investigate time-related trends .
DATA SET is a DATA set represents a grouping of data values for singular operations by a tase.2 user .
DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS is a PROCEDURE first proposed by r. discriminant analysis is a statistical analysis technique .
a HASH TABLE is conceptually a CONTIGUOUS SECTION OF MEMORY with a number of addressable elements , commonly called bins , in which data can be quickly inserted , deleted and found .
LOGIC PROGRAMMING is the study of COMPUTER PROGRAMS that implement logic .
an UNDIRECTED GRAPH is a TREE IFF there is a unique simple path between any two of its vertices .
SEMANTIC SPACE is a leading , GLOBAL SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS COMPANY with track record of providing enterprise software products , project services and quality assurance services to fortune 500 companies , such as countrywide home loans , a global leader in mortgage industry .
in pattern recognition a FEATURE SPACE is an ABSTRACT SPACE where each pattern sample is represented as a point in n-dimensional space .
SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING is a really NEAT TECHNIQUE that i think represents a nice mix of scaling and bootstrapping with human knowledge .
LEARNING ALGORITHM is DIFFERENT NETWORKS modify their connections differently .
MESH GENERATION is the PROCESS of dividing the analysis continuum into a number of discrete parts or finite elements .
a CONVEX POLYGON is the OPPOSITE of a concave polygon .
RANDOM WALK is the PATH of a variable over time that exhibits no predictable pattern at all .
LINEAR PROGRAMMING is a MATHEMATICAL METHOD for determining a way to achieve the best outcome in a given mathematical model for some list of requirements represented as linear relationships .
a CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is defined as the PROBABILITY of an event , given that another event has occurred .
SEARCH METHOD is a kind of UNIVERSAL METHOD , the basic principle of the method is to change the value of the optimized variables on line , to observe the changing of the objective function , and then to decide whether the changing direction of the optimized variables is right .
a BAYESIAN NETWORK is a REPRESENTATION OF THE PROBABILISTIC RELATIONSHIPS among distinctions about the world .
COSINE SIMILARITY is a standard MEASURE in vector space modeling , but wherever the vectors represent probability distributions , different similarity measures may be more appropriate .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is the study of ALGORITHMIC PROCESSES and the machines that carry out these processes .
FEATURE EXTRACTION is a MODULE for extracting information from high-resolution panchromatic or .
RSA ENCRYPTION is a PUBLIC-KEY ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM .
BELIEF PROPAGATION is a PROBABILITY INFERENCE ALGORITHM used in machine learning and computer vision .
in complexity theory , the SATISFIABILITY PROBLEM is a DECISION PROBLEM , whose instance is a boolean expression written using only and , or , not , variables , and parentheses .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is the process of identifying relevant INFORMATION where the criteria for relevance are predefined by the user in the form of a template that is to be filled .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is a SIMULATION-BASED TECHNIQUE for solving markov decision problems .
a DIAGONAL MATRIX is a SQUARE MATRIX with all elements not on the main diagonal equal to zero .
LANGUAGE MODEL is a LANGUAGE MODEL is sometimes called a dictionary or lexicon .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is an ESSENTIAL PART OF MANY CONSTRAINT PROGRAMMING SYSTEMS .
a DECOMPOSITION TREE is a TREE representing the current decomposition state of a compound item , with each node in the tree representing one item .
PAGERANK is a LINK ANALYSIS ALGORITHM .
USER INTERFACE is a WEB based USER INTERFACE for a numerical weather prediction model written with php and bash scripts .
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL is an inherently interactive PROCESS , and the users can change direction by modifying the query surrogate , the conceptual query or their understanding of their information need .
a SEARCH ENGINE is a WEB SITE on the world wide web ( ) of the internet that helps us to quickly and easily find the web pages we want .
a TRAINING SET is a set of DATA used in various areas of information science to discover potentially predictive relationships .
DATA MATRIX is a SPACE-EFFICIENT TWO-DIMENSIONAL BAR CODE SYMBOLOGY that is made up of square modules .
INTEGER FACTORIZATION is the PROCESS of determining which prime numbers divide a given positive integer .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is the most exciting SCIENCE or engineering field of the last forty years and the next fifty .
RANDOM WALK is a REASONABLE MODEL for the stock series .
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is the PROBABILITY of some event a , given the occurrence of some other event b. conditional probability is a term in probability and statistics that means one event depends upon another .
LINEAR PROGRAMMING refers to STANDARD TELEVISION SERVICES in which a viewer watches scheduled programming at a particular time it is offered .
MODAL LOGIC is the LOGIC of ` ` necessity ' ' and ` ` possibility ' ' .
a MARKOV NETWORK is an UNDIRECTED GRAPH .
LINEAR PROGRAMMING is a mathematical TECHNIQUE useful for allocation of scarce or limited .
BOOLEAN LOGIC is a COMPLETE SYSTEM FOR LOGICAL OPERATIONS , used in many systems .
in computer science , LOCAL SEARCH is a METAHEURISTIC for solving computationally hard optimization problems .
GREEDY ALGORITHM is an APPROXIMATE ALGORITHM , which consists in examining the items and inserting each new item into the knapsack if it fits .
CRYPTOGRAPHY refers to NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS , implementations of those algorithms and various mathematical and programming tools used to meet security goals .
BELIEF PROPAGATION is a message passing ALGORITHM for performing inference on graphical models , such as bayesian networks and markov random fields .
LONGEST COMMON SUBSEQUENCE is the longest COMMON SUBSEQUENCE PROBLEM is to find the longest subsequence common to all sequences in a set of sequences .
a FINITE STATE MACHINE is an ABSTRACT MODEL of a machine with a primitive internal memory .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is an area of MACHINE LEARNING that addresses problems that are typified by having sparse feedback as to whether a proposed solution achieved a goal .
NASH EQUILIBRIUM refers to the SITUATION in which , because of the strategies opted on by the competitors , no competitor can improve his or her outcomes by changing his or her own strategy .
a CONVEX HULL is defined as the SMALLEST CONVEX REGION that encompass all the points .
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING is a subset of ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE .
a LINEAR EQUATION is an ALGEBRAIC EQUATION in which each term is either a constant or the product of a constant and a single variable .
COMPUTER VISION is the study of inferring PROPERTIES of the .
MACHINE TRANSLATION is the automatic TRANSLATION of human language by computers .
modal logic is the logical study of NECESSITY and POSSIBILITY .
a DECISION TREE is defined as a ROOTED TREE in which every non-leaf node is a decision node that performs a test on a variable , the value of which is then used to determine recursively the next decision node until a leaf node is reached .
a BINARY HEAP is a HEAP DATA STRUCTURE created using a binary tree .
SERVICE COMPOSITION is the ACT of executing a service coordination .
a target is a NUMBER in the fibonacci sequence .
in graph theory , a TREE DECOMPOSITION is a MAPPING OF A GRAPH into a tree that can be used to speed up solving certain problems on the original graph .
LINEAR PROGRAMMING is a COMPUTATIONAL METHOD to determine the best plan or course of action .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is a relatively NEW SCIENCE .
conditional probability is the PROBABILITY that an event will occur given that one or more other events have occurred .
eigenvalue is any NUMBER such that a given square matrix minus that number times the identity matrix has a zero determinant .
in game theory , NASH EQUILIBRIUM is a SOLUTION CONCEPT OF A GAME involving two or more players , in which each player is assumed to know the equilibrium strategies of the other players , and no player has anything to gain by changing only his or her own strategy unilaterally .
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is the PROBABILITY that an event will occur , given that another event has already occured .
in computer science , PATTERN MATCHING is the ACT of checking some sequence of tokens for the presence of the constituents of some pattern .
in computer science , PATTERN MATCHING is the ACT of checking for the presence of the constituents of a given pattern .
PAGERANK is a TRADEMARK OF THE SEARCH ENGINE GOOGLE .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is a branch of COMPUTER SCIENCE that makes the computers capable enough to perform complex tasks , i. artificial intelligence is concerned with the attempt to develop computer programs that will be capable of performing difficult cognitive tasks .
SINGULAR VALUE is the LARGEST SINGULAR VALUE that is less than the error bound .
a SEARCH ENGINE is typically a SOFTWARE INTERFACE that queries a database in response to words , phrases , and or images supplied by the user .
GAME THEORY is a branch of APPLIED MATHEMATICS that is used in the social sciences , most notably in economics , as well as in biology , engineering , political science , international relations , computer science , social psychology , philosophy and management .
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is the PROBABILITY of some event a , given the occurrence of some other event b. a CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is defined as the probability of one event , given that some other event has occurred .
DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS is a TECHNIQUE for classifying a set of observations into predefined classes .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is defined as INTELLIGENCE exhibited by an artificial entity .
a DETERMINISTIC FINITE AUTOMATON is a MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF A MACHINE that accepts a particular set of words over some alphabet e. domain knowledge is about the contents of the brokering domain and should reflect the provider 's understanding of the domain as well as the consumers ' perception of the domain .
REDUCTION ALGORITHM is a PROCEDURE that transforms a instance α ; of a into some instance β ; of b with the following characteristics : the transformation takes polynomial time .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is a kind of PUT-UP-OR-SHUT-UP DISCIPLINE .
DESCRIPTION LOGIC is a subset of PREDICATE LOGIC .
an INFERENCE RULE is a STATEMENT that has two parts , an if-clause and a then-clause .
a MIXTURE MODEL refers to a PARAMETRIC DISTRIBUTION MODEL with the following form : , with summationdisplay z ? z =1 where c is the component number , z ? c= { } is the component indicator variable , and ? = {
SEARCH ENGINE is an INTERNET SEARCH ENGINE .
FIRST-ORDER LOGIC is a formal logical SYSTEM used in mathematics , philosophy , linguistics , and computer science .
a REGULAR EXPRESSION is a set of PATTERN matching rules encoded in a string according to certain syntax rules .
EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE is defined as the SHORTEST LENGTH between two points in two-dimensional space .
MACHINE LEARNING refers to METHODS of letting a computer find patterns in data so you can make predictions about new samples based on the properties of old samples .
a HASH FUNCTION is any WELL-DEFINED PROCEDURE or MATHEMATICAL FUNCTION that converts a large , possibly variable-sized amount of data into a small datum , usually a single integer that may serve as an index to an array
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is a CURRENT WEB REALITY , GALWAY CONFERENCE told - the irish times - fri , sep 10 , 2010. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is a growing market as technology increases to meet new demands .
a SEMANTIC WEB is a kind of WEB which groups information in a manner that both computer and humans are able to comprehend .
KERNEL FUNCTION is a GAUSSIAN KERNEL FUNCTION .
in computer science , a BOOLEAN VARIABLE is a VARIABLE that takes values in some boolean domain .
RANDOM VARIABLE is an IMPORTANT CONCEPT in probability theory , and its applications to .
an INTERACTION GRAPH is a marked ORIENTED GRAPH , where the sets of vertices and edges are given as above .
TREE SEARCH is one of the CENTRAL ALGORITHMS of any game playing program .
a TOPIC MODEL is a HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN MODEL , in which a user is modeled as a mixture of topics , where a trend in a topic is modeled as a purchase probability distribution over catalog items .
a HASH FUNCTION is any WELL-DEFINED PROCEDURE or mathematical FUNCTION that converts a large , possibly variable-sized amount of data into a small datum , usually a single integer that may serve as an index to an array
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING refers to a PROGRAMMING PARADIGM is that may be used to solve search and optimization problems in many areas .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is a SIMULATION-BASED METHOD rooted in dynamic programming .
a SEARCH ENGINE is defined as a SOFTWARE PROGRAM that searches a database for specified keyword queries .
SINGULAR VALUE is a DOMINANT SINGULAR VALUE .
in constraint satisfaction , LOCAL SEARCH is an INCOMPLETE METHOD for finding a solution to a problem .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is an EMPIRICAL DISCIPLINE .
in statistics , a MIXTURE MODEL is a PROBABILISTIC MODEL which assumes the underlying data to belong to a mixture distribution .
a SOCIAL NETWORK is a SOCIAL STRUCTURE made of individuals called nodes , which are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency , such as friendship , kinship , financial exchange , dislike , sexual relationships , or relationships of beliefs , knowledge or .
GRAPH COLORING is the DE FACTOR STANDARD TECHNIQUE for register allocation wihtin a compiler .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is a kind of MACHINE LEARNING which enables an agent to determine actions that will maximize its performance in a particular situation .
DIJKSTRA'S ALGORITHM is an OPTIMAL GREEDY ALGORITHM to find the minimum distance and shortest path in a weighted graph from a give start node .
IMAGE RETRIEVAL is an ACTIVE RESEARCH AREA in image processing , pattern recognition , and computer vision .
an INFERENCE RULE is a RULE that is derived from a pattern that is true all the time for specific cases .
a BOOLEAN FUNCTION is a CONDITIONAL TAUTOLOGY with a given subset of the input space if .
a USER INTERFACE is the SYSTEM by which people interact with a machine .
REINFORCEMENT LEARNING is an APPROACH for building agent behaviors in complex environments through learning .
GAME THEORY is a MATHEMATICAL THEORY that applies to certain situations in which there are conflicts of interest between two or more individuals or groups .
in computer science , a HASH TABLE or hash map is a DATA STRUCTURE that uses a hash function to efficiently map certain identifiers or keys
COMPUTER SCIENCE or computing science is the study of the theoretical FOUNDATIONS of information and COMPUTATION , and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems .
a BAYESIAN NETWORK is a kind of GRAPH which is used to model events that cannot be observed .
INFORMATION PROCESSING refers to a PROCESS whereby data are transformed into some form of desired communication .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is the study of the PHENOMENA surrounding computers .
in essence , a STANDARD DEVIATION is a WEIGHTED SUM .
MACHINE LEARNING is concerned with the DESIGN and ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS that enable computers to automatically find patterns in the data .
TREE SEARCH is one of the central ALGORITHMS of any game playing program .
CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION is a BASIC PROCESS found in all sorts of cognitive processes , but it can be an elusive idea to students encountering it for the first time .
an UNDIRECTED GRAPH is a TREE if it is connected and contains no cycles .
HEURISTIC SEARCH is an AI SEARCH TECHNIQUE that employs heuristic for its moves .
a FREE VARIABLE is any VARIABLE or FUNCTION referenced in an expression that does n't have a global special binding or an enclosing lexical binding .
DATA SET is a collection of DATA VARIABLES that have been derived from a single data source , such as the mean and maximum elevation variables .
GAME THEORY is defined as a THEORY OF RATIONAL BEHAVIOR , wherein players make countermoves based on the anticipated moves of their opponents .
PATTERN MATCHING is an extremely powerful FEATURE supported by f# .
NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY is a type of GEOMETRY that is not based off the postulates that normal geometry is based off .
CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY is the ABILITY of a marker or diagnostic test to discriminate between two groups of individuals , cases and controls , and is com- monly summarized by using the receiver operating characteristic ( ) curve .
IMAGE ANNOTATION is the process of adding additional INFORMATION the image for such uses as enhanced image enjoyment , reminders of the people or places in the image , industry applications , education , classification , and other imaging utilization areas that can benefit from incorporating additional information .
overall , FEATURE SELECTION is a very important METHOD that is often applied to reduce the computational cost or to save storage space , for problems with either high dimensionality or limited resources .
a CLIENT is a COMPUTER PROGRAM that retrieves documents or files or data from a database or from a computer network -lrb- especially from the internet -rrb- .
in computability theory , the HALTING PROBLEM is a DECISION PROBLEM which can be stated as follows : given a description of a program , decide whether the program finishes running or will run forever .
GAME THEORY is a branch of applied MATHEMATICS that formally began in 1944 with the book the theory of games and economic behavior by john von neumann and oskar morgenstern .
NP-COMPLETENESS is a STATEMENT about the .
a MATRIX PRODUCT is the multiplication of MATRICES .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is an EFFICIENT INFERENCE MECHANISM obtained with concurrent propagators accumulating information in a. constraint propagation is an essential part of many constraint programming systems .
MODEL CHECKING refers to ALGORITHMIC TECHNIQUES for program verification .
DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS is a CLASSICAL STATISTICAL APPROACH for classifying samples of unknown classes , based on training samples with known classes .
GAME THEORY is a branch of MATHEMATICS that seeks to model decision making in conflict situations .
PATTERN RECOGNITION is an INNATE ABILITY OF ANIMALS .
a DECISION TREE is a type of GRAPHICAL MODEL more » .
MACHINE LEARNING is concerned with the DEVELOPMENT of COMPUTER-BASED STATISTICAL PROCEDURES for finding patterns and dependencies in large volumes of data .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is a DISCIPLINE that spans theory and practice .
PATTERN MATCHING is a very cpu intensive PROCESS .
PAGERANK is a PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION used to represent the likelihood that a person randomly clicking on links will arrive at any particular page .
an INFERENCE RULE is a CONDITIONAL STATEMENT with two parts .
FEATURE EXTRACTION is a complex mathematical TREE that would separate blood cells based on their physical features including the nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio , diameter and density .
MODEL CHECKING is a PROMISING APPROACH to building reliable firmware .
ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY is a GENERAL CONCEPT and TRANSLATION LOOKASIDE BUFFER is a special case .
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD is the FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions of partial differential equations as well as of integral equations .
GRAPH COLORING is a REGISTER ALLOCATION ALGORITHM that works by creating a graphical representation of the program .
DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE is defined as the KNOWLEDGE LEARNERS possess about a specific field of study
DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE refers to the RULES of expressing the relation among classification classes between specific examples , and it can be realized as a set of rules which produce combination of another example having specific relation with such classes and classification classes which this example should have , by applying specific operation to the given example and also to the example given from classification classes ancillary thereto .
MODAL LOGIC is the study of the PROPERTIES of SO-CALLED MODAL OPERATORS - i. modal logic is a type of formal logic that extends the standards of formal logic to include the elements of modality .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is a ROSTER DESIGN METHOD , learned years ago in malaysia .
SEARCH PROBLEM is an OPTIMAL SEARCH PROBLEM introduced by .
a CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELD is a type of DISCRIMINATIVE PROBABILISTIC MODEL most often used for the labeling or parsing of sequential data , such as natural language text or biological sequences .
a Diagonal matrix is a square MATRIX with all elements not on the main diagonal equal to zero .
SEMANTIC WEB refers to a LONG-RUNNING WORLD WIDE WEB CONSORTIUM INITIATIVE that is working toward an ambitious--some might say hopelessly utopian--goal .
a UTILITY FUNCTION is a mathematical EXPRESSION that assigns a value to all possible choices .
PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC is a SYSTEM which deals with the logical relations that hold between .
CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY is the ABILITY of a marker or diagnostic test to discriminate between two groups of individuals , cases and controls , and is com- monly summarized by using the receiver operating characteristic curve .
CROSS VALIDATION is the STANDARD METHOD to estimate the performance of predictions over unseen data .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION is a form of SHALLOW TEXT PROCESSING that locates a specified set of relevant items in a natural-language document .
in natural language processing , INFORMATION EXTRACTION is a type of INFORMATION RETRIEVAL whose goal is to automatically extract structured information , i .
COSINE SIMILARITY is a STANDARD MEASURE in vector space modeling , but wherever the vectors represent probability distributions , different similarity measures may be more appropriate .
a RANDOM GRAPH is an ENSEMBLE OF GRAPHS , defined by some probability distribution on the set of graphs .
in pattern recognition and machine learning , a FEATURE VECTOR is an N-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR OF NUMERICAL FEATURES that represent some object .
a USER INTERFACE is a PROGRAM that controls a display for the user -lrb- usually on a computer monitor -rrb- and that allows the user to interact with the system .
SEQUENTIAL SEARCH is the SIMPLEST APPROACH .
in pattern recognition and machine learning , a FEATURE VECTOR is an N-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR of numerical features that represent some object .
a PROBABILISTIC MODEL is a MODEL that produces different outcomes based on a set of probabilities .
a SUPPORT VECTOR refers to a characteristic VECTOR SI on the optimal identification hyperplane .
RANDOM VARIABLE is a FUNCTION .
a FINITE STATE MACHINE is a REPRESENTATION of an event-driven system .
FACE RECOGNITION is a kind of DESKTOP ACCESS CONTROL SOFTWARE basing on the advanced technology of facial recognition .
GAME THEORY is a SIGNIFICANT BRANCH OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH and is closely related to decision theory and operational gaming .
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL is the SCIENCE of SEARCHING for documents , for information within documents , and for metadata about documents , as well as that of searching relational databases and the world wide web .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is an ITERATIVE PROCESS controlled by the -b , -g and -s options .
SEARCH ENGINE is a kind of SOFTWARE being developed to provide a helping hand to the internet users which would be of great benefit by searching and listing the relevant database .
INFORMATION EXTRACTION refers to the ACTIVITY of automatically recognizing pre-specified sorts of information in short , natural language texts .
GRAPH MINING is a SPECIAL CASE OF STRUCTURED DATA MINING .
PATTERN MATCHING is an extremely POWERFUL FEATURE supported by f# .
GRAPH MINING is a type of DATA MINING in which data is organized into a graph in order to extract information regarding the data .
MODAL LOGIC is the study of the LAWS of INFERENCE for judgments such as it is necessary that , it is possible that , k knows that , k affirms that , etc. in logic , a normal modal logic is a set l of modal formulas such that l contains .
COSINE SIMILARITY is a MEASURE OF SIMILARITY between two vectors of n dimensions by finding the angle between them .
a SIFT FEATURE is a selected IMAGE REGION with an associated descriptor .
a STATE DIAGRAM is a type of DIAGRAM used in computer science and related fields to describe the behavior of systems .
ACTION THEORY is a THEORY initially developed by german scientists in the field of applied psychology
WEB MINING is the application of DATA mining techniques to discover patterns from the web .
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY refers to the amount of PROCESSING required by client computer system 506 to decode the encoded macroblock .
a Gaussian distribution is a THEORETICAL DISTRIBUTION with finite mean and variance .
a BAYESIAN NETWORK is a GRAPH-BASED MODEL of joint multivariate probability distributions that captures properties of conditional independence between variables .
a CLASSIFICATION PROBLEM is a special type of FUNCTION APPROXIMATION .
STANDARD DEVIATION is a MEASURE of how dispersed or scattered a group of numbers is .
SORTING ALGORITHM is an ALGORITHM for sorting a list .
a FEATURE VECTOR is an N-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR OF NUMERICAL FEATURES that represent an object [ 44 ] .
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL refers to the PROCESS of SEARCHING for documents , information within documents or metadata about documents .
a CONVEX POLYGON is a SIMPLE POLYGON whose interior is a convex set .
MODEL CHECKING is an AUTOMATIC VERIFICATION TECHNIQUE for state-transition systems that are finite-state or that have finite-state abstractions .
COMPUTER VISION refers to the automatic extraction of INFORMATION about a scene based on images of it .
FACE RECOGNITION is a NEW FEATURE among digital cameras .
a DECISION TREE is a DIAGRAM made to represent the outcomes of various choices .
a BAYESIAN NETWORK is a REPRESENTATION of the probabilistic relationships among distinctions about the world .
MACHINE LEARNING is a branch of STATISTICS and COMPUTER SCIENCE , which studies algorithms and architectures that learn from observed facts .
in computer science , SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING is a class of MACHINE learning techniques that make use of both labeled and unlabeled data for training typically a small amount of labeled data with a large amount of unlabeled data .
GRAPH MINING is the field concerned with extracting INTERESTING PATTERNS and knowledge from graph or network structured data , such as can be found in chemistry , bioinformatics , the world wide web , social networks etc. GRAPH MINING is the study of how to extract patters from social networks represented as graphs .
in computer science , SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING is a class of MACHINE learning techniques that make use of both labeled and unlabeled data for training - typically a small amount of labeled data with a large amount of unlabeled data .
a Euclidean space is a SPACE in which euclid 's axioms and definitions apply .
COMPUTER SCIENCE is a body of KNOWLEDGE concerned with computers and computations , which focuses on information transmission and manipulation .
PATTERN RECOGNITION is defined as MACHINE INTERPRETATION OF PATTERNS .
RSA ENCRYPTION is a POPULAR ENCRYPTION and AUTHENTICATION STANDARD that uses asymmetric keys and was developed by rivest , sharmir , and adelman .
RSA ENCRYPTION is a DETERMINISTIC ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM .
in computer science , a BINARY SEARCH is an ALGORITHM for locating the position of an element in a sorted list .
a PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION is a LIST OF THE EVENTS that may occur in an experiment together with their frequency or probability of occurrence .
a DESCRIPTION LOGIC is a FORMALISM FOR KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION that comprises two parts .
in mathematical terms , NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY is A. NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY is an interesting way to help students see the many aspects of math .
a random variable is a VARIABLE QUANTITY that is random .
DATA MINING is defined as the NON-TRIVIAL PROCESS of identifying valid , novel , potentially useful , and ultimately understandable patterns in data stored in databases
a FREE VARIABLE is a REFINABLE PARAMETER that can be used to impose a variety of additional linear constraints , e. a FREE VARIABLE is defined as an input variable that has not yet been assigned a standard deviation .
DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION refers to a MAPPING OF HIGH-DIMENSIONAL SPACE onto low-dimensional space .
CROSS VALIDATION is an OBJECTIVE METHOD for determining fitting values .
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING is a POWERFUL TECHNIQUE for solving optimization problems efficiently .
COSINE SIMILARITY is a MEASURE OF SIMILARITY between two vectors of n dimensions by finding the angle between them , often used to compare documents in text mining .
Machine Translation is the use of COMPUTERS to translate from one language to another .
DATA SET is a DATA set is a collection of data , usually presented in tabular form .
a CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY refers to the PROBABILITY of observing an event a given that you have observed a separate event b. the CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY is a probability that if a first tag in a given pair of tags has been used to tag a given resource , a second tag in the given pair of tags has also been used to tag that resource .
BEAM SEARCH is an OPTIMIZATION OF BEST-FIRST SEARCH that reduces its memory requirements .
a GAME TREE is an ABSTRACT REPRESENTATION of an actual game .
COMPUTER VISION is the SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY OF MACHINES which are able to extract information from an image that is necessary to solve some task .
NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY is a SYSTEM built on not accepting this axiom as true .
MODEL CHECKING is a TECHNIQUE for automatically verifying correctness properties of finite-state systems .
EQUIVALENCE CLASS is defined as a set of IDENTICAL NODES in the xis tree for an input xml document .
WEB MINING is the extraction of PATTERNS and INFORMATION from articles or activity on the world wide web .
an INTERACTION GRAPH is a MARKED ORIENTED GRAPH , where the sets of vertices and edges are given as above .
MODEL CHECKING is a TECHNIQUE used to verify properties of concurrent , communicating systems .
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is the intelligence of MACHINES and the branch of computer science that aims to create it .
CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is an EFFICIENT INFERENCE MECHANISM obtained with concurrent propagators accumulating information in a. CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION is an iterative process controlled by the -b , -g and -s options .
MACHINE TRANSLATION is a kind of AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION from one language into another without human aid .
in mathematics , a RANDOM GRAPH is a GRAPH that is generated by some random process .
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY is the MATHEMATICAL STUDY of how hard problems are to solve , and is an important branch of computer science .
in mathematics , the FIBONACCI NUMBERS are the NUMBERS in the following integer sequence .
TRAINING DATA is TRAINING DATA is used to create or train a data model .
SEARCH ENGINE is a kind of SOFTWARE being developed to provide a helping hand to the internet users which would be of great benefit by searching and listing the relevant .
a RANDOM VARIABLE is a FUNCTION , which maps events or outcomes